c) Kuwait: Oil Company provides technical and other assistance services to the National Oil Company. Oil Company receives an incentive to purchase in the form of a discount on each barrel purchased under the sales contract. Production Sharing Agreement (PSA) “The PSA is a contractual agreement between foreign contractors or FOCs and a designated public company – National Oil Company (“NOC”) that authorizes contractors to conduct oil exploration and exploitation in a specified area, in accordance with the rules and conditions of the agreement. The PSA is a risky contract under which the FOC receives compensation for costs and profits in the form of hydrocarbons and “THE FOCs take them as products in their accounting system and then the hydrocarbons taxed by the corresponding tax administration. Based on our extensive experience in concluding this contract, we can offer our customers well thought-out commercial and technical services at all stages, from idea to implementation. In 2006-2007, the new Venezuelan government forced oil companies to accept the transformation of their operational services agreements into “mixed enterprises” with majority stakes for the Venezuelan state oil company Petréleos de Venezuela, SA (PDVSA). The contractual amendments, as well as the implementation of the new wind tax code, were implemented in 2008 to increase the total acquisition of the State due to the larger size of proven reserves. Production-sharing agreements were first used in Bolivia in the early 1950s, although their first implementation was similar to that of today in Indonesia in the 1960s.  Today, they are often used in the Middle East and Central Asia.
Under the risk services contracts, the oil company is committed to paying for all equity and development-related risks. On the other hand, if exploration efforts are successful and oil is produced, the government authorizes the contractor to cover the costs by selling oil or gas. In addition, a royalty per barrel of oil is paid to the supplier, which will then be produced for its risk and expertise, although it may have provisions to repurchase a quantity of crude oil at international prices from established production. The tax is often taxable. According to think tank Arc Media Global, although effective, the RSC is essentially a contract that greatly increases the risk of exposure to an operator. Concession AgreementIn the typical oil and gas concession agreement, oil-producing countries or a competent management authority grant contractors the operation of oil projects and the right to develop projects in exchange for a number of in-kind payments or contributions. This source of government revenue can take many forms, but generally includes one or more of the following: fixed rents, royalties (based on sales), surcharges (effective reduction of the potential for increase of sponsors) and taxes (income and tariffs). Thanks to our know-how and extensive network, we can provide all the commercial, financial and technical services necessary to conclude and implement this agreement. Our services include estimating potential risks. Estimate the benefits of entering into this contract.
Find a partner, investor, etc.” providing financial services. Provide the basis for the conclusion of the contract with public or private companies” and, in addition, Under Philippine Risk Service contract, contractor receives a Filipino Participation Incentive Premium (FPIA) as a service fee.